Voice: Voice किसी वाक्य में प्रयुक्त verb का वह रूप है जो यह दिखाता है कि या तो कर्ता कुछ करता है या स्वयं कर्ता पर ही कुछ घटित होता है। Voice दो प्रकार के होते हैं
- Active Voice 2. Passive Voice
1, Active Voice: यदि किसी वाक्य का कर्ता क्रिया का संपादन करता है, तो उस वाक्य में प्रयुक्त Verb को Active Voice में होना समझा जाता है।
A verb is said to be in the active voice when its form shows that the person or thing denoted by the subject does something
- Passive Voice: यदि वाक्य का कर्ता सक्रिय नहीं है, क्रिया का संपादन नहीं करता है, बल्कि क्रिया उसी पर संपादित होती है, तो प्रयुक्त Verb को Passive Voice में होना समझा जाता है।
A verb is said to be in the passive voice when its form shows that something is done to the person or thing denoted by the subject. अर्थात्
यदि Subject doer है, तो Verb Active Voice में यदि Subject receiver of the action है, तो Verb Passive Voice में
इन वाक्यों पर विचार करें – 1. Ram teaches, राम पढ़ाता है। 2. Ram is taught. राम को पढ़ाया जाता है।
यहाँ प्रथम वाक्य में राम पढ़ाने का काम करता है अर्थात् वह doer (काम करनेवाला) है। अतः प्रयुक्त Verb teaches Active Voice में हुआ। दूसरे वाक्य में राम कुछ करता नहीं है, बल्कि उसी पर पढ़ाने का काम संपादित होता है। यहाँ Ram doer नहीं है। अतः प्रयुक्त verb is taught Passive Voice में हुआ।
Active Voice को Passive Voice में बदलने का नियम इसे ध्यान से दे और =* –
Active Voice Ran. A
Passive Voice n =0
5 == Voice का interchanging करते वक्त Active verb के Object को Passive verb का Subject बना दिया जाता है और Active verb के Subject को Passive verb का agent बना दिया जाता है। अगर यह agent वाक्य के अर्थ/भाव को स्पष्ट करने के लिए आवश्यक हुआ तो इसे clause/ sentence के अंत में by या अन्य उपयुक्त preposition लगाकर रख दिया जाता है, अन्यथा इसका लोप कर दिया जाता है। विशेष ध्यान Verb पर देने की जरूरत होती है।
Active Verb को Passive में बदलने के लिए अभीष्ट Main Verb को Past Participle Tense में बदला जाता है और उसके पहले Verb to be का प्रयोग उपयुक्त Number, Person और Tense में किया जाता है। | Note: Pronoun जब subject के रूप में प्रयुक्त होता है, तब वह Nominative Case में रहता है और जब object के रूप में प्रयुक्त होता है, तब वह Objective Case में रहता है।
Nominative Case I we, you, he, she, it, they Objective Case
me, us, you, hirn, her, it, them अव विभिन्न Tenses के Active Verbs को Passive में बदलने की प्रक्रिया पर विचार करें –
PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE
[Passive verb Form: am / is / are + v] Acrave
Passive Ram eats a mango.
A mango is eaten by Ram. Ram cats mangoes.
Mangoes are eaten by Ram. I love itm.
He is loved by me. He loves me.
I am loved by him.
You are taught by her. She teaches you. We respect him.
He is respected by us.
Note: इन वाक्यों पर विचार करें
- Active She loves me.
Passive I am loved by her. 2. Active People speak Hindi in Bihar.
Passive Hindi is spoken in Bihar. यहाँ प्रथम वाक्य के Passive में by + agent (by her) का प्रयोग हुआ है, जो आवश्यक है। दूसरे वाक्य के Passive में by + agent (by people) का प्रयोग नहीं हुआ है क्योंकि यहाँ Passive Sentence के अर्थ को स्पष्ट करने के लिए by + agent देना आवश्यक नहीं है। Active से Passive बनाते समय Agent का प्रयोग तभी किया जाता है जब agent का प्रयोग वाक्य के अर्थ को स्पष्ट करने के लिए अत्यंत आवश्यक होता है। जब Active verb का Subject one, someone, somebody, nobody, people या अन्य vague/ understood/common Subject रहता है, तब Passive Verb प्रयुक्त होने पर इसका लोप हो जाता है। कुछ वाक्यों में 1, we, you, they, he, she, a man, a boy जैसे agents का भी आवश्यकतानुसार Passive Verb प्रयुक्त होने पर लोप कर दिया जाता है। अतः आप वाक्य के अर्थ को समझते हुए यह निर्णय लें कि अभीष्ट Passive Sentence में Agent का प्रयोग आवश्यक है। या नहीं। Solved Examples:
- Active We expect good news.
Passive Good news is expected. 2. Active No one respects a dishonest man in our society.
Passive A dishonest man is not respected in our society. 3. Active In India people worship the cow.
Passive In India the cow is worshipped.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
[ Passive Verb Form: am/is/are + being + V3 ] Active
Passive I am eating a mango.
A mango is being eaten by me. They are singing songs. Songs are being sung (by them). – He is helping his mother. His mother is being helped by him. She is vexing me.
I am being vexed by her. They are doing it.
It is being done by them. They are cutting the old trees. The old trees are being cut.
- Active They are doing nothing against me.
Passive Nothing is being done against me. 2. Active She is looking at me.
Passive I am being looked at by her. 3. Active She is watching you.
Passive You are being watched by her.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
[ Passive Verb Form: have / has + been + V31
Passive I have eaten a mango.
A mango has been eaten by me. She has finished the work. The work has been finished by her. They have cheated me.
I have been cheated by them. She has helped us.
We have been helped by her. Ram has disturbed them. They have been disturbed by Ram. Someone has stolen my pen. My pen has been stolen. He has cut his finger.
His finger has been cut. They have published the result. The result has been published.
- Active Someone has stolen my car.
Passive My car has been stolen. 2. Active No one has seen that mad man for ten days.
Passive That mad man has not been seen for ten days. मूल वाक्य का Subject No one रहने की वजह से Passive Sentence के Verb को बनाया गया हैं
Note: Present Perfect Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense, Future Continuous Tense aan Future Perfect Continuous Tense के Passive verb Forms का प्रयोग सामान्यतया नहीं होता है। इसलिए हम इस पुस्तक में इन चारों Tenses के Passive verbForms की चर्चा नहीं करेंगे। इस पुस्तक को पढ़ने के बाद आप Oxford Current English Grammar अवश्य पढ़े जिसमें इन चारों Tenses के Passive verb Forms की चर्चा विस्तारपूर्वक की गई है।
PAST INDEFINITE TENSE
[ Passive Verb Form: was / were + V3] Active
Passive I ate a mango.
A mango was eaten by me. I ate some mangoes.
Some mangoes were eaten by me. The police arrested him. He was arrested. He wrote the letters.
The letters were written by him. Someone stole my pen. My pen was stolen.
Passive 2. Active
Passive 3. Active
A girl saved my life. My life was saved by a girl. They admired him for his bravery. He was admired for his bravery. Most of them opposed me. I was opposed by most of them.
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
[ Passive Verb Form: was / were + being + V3]
Active He was eating a mango. He was watching them. She was vexing me. They were killing animals. She was supporting me.
Passive A mango was being eaten by him. They were being watched by him. I was being vexed by her. Animals were being killed. I was being supported by her.
PAST PERFECT TENSE
[ Passive Verb Form: had been + V3 ] Active
Passive I had done the work.
The work had been done by me. She had written the letter. The letter had been written by
her. She had informed us.
We had been informed by her.
Somebody had stolen my pen. Ram had completed the work.
My pen had been stolen. The work had been completed by Ram.
SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
[ Passive Verb Form: shall / will + be + V3]
Active I shall help you. She will teach you. He will help me. People will forget it. No one will solve your problem. They will start the show in two months.
Passive You will be helped by me. You will be taught by her. I shall be helped by him. It will be forgotten. Your problem will not be solved. The show will be started in two months.
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
[ Passive Verb Form: shall/will + have been + V3] 1. Active I shall have written the book.
Passive The book will have been written by me. 2. Active They will have informed us.
Passive We shall have been informed. 3. Active They will have done the work by next Monday.
Passive The work will have been done by next Monday.
MODAL VERBS: PASSIVE VERB FORM shall, will, can, could. may, might, should, would must. ought, इत्यादि Modal Auxiliaries हैं। जब इनके बाद Transitive Verb प्रयुक्त रहता है, तब हम verb को Passive में बदलने के लिए निम्नलिखित form का प्रयोग करते हैं
modal auxiliary + Be + V3 Active
Passive They will kill the tiger.
The tiger will be killed (by them). I can lift it.
It can be lifted by me. They could solve the problem. The problem could be solved. He may defeat you.
You may be defeated by him. You must help your brother. Your brother must be helped. One should keep one’s promises. Promises should be kept. He could kill the lion.
The lion could be killed by him. We should help the poor.
The poor should be helped. None can challenge him.
He cannot be challenged. Everyone will blame us.
We shall be blamed by everyone. We must help the poor.
The poor must be helped. You must write the answers The answers must be written in ink.
अगर Verb Phrase की बनावट am/is/are/was/were/have/ has/had + infinitive (to + verb) , हो तो इसका Passive Voice में रूप होगा।
am/is/are / was / were /have/has / had + to be + V3 Active
Passive I am to do it.
It is to be done by me. I was to do it.
It was to be done by me. I had to do it.
It had to be done by me. My father is to buy a car. A car is to be bought by my father. The teacher was to teach us. We were to be taught by the teacher. They had to build the bridge. The bridge had to be built.
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES EXPRESSING
ORDER / COMMAND जब Imperative Sentence से order/command का बोध होता है, तब हम प्रयुक्त Active Verb को Passive में बदलने के लिए वाक्य को Let से शुरू करते हैं और Subject के बाद be + v3 का प्रयोग करते हैं। जैसे
Active Do this work. Bring a glass of water. Open the door. Switch on the radio.. Don’t pluck the flowers. Don’t touch this wire. Give the order. Inform the police of the accident.
Passive Let this work be done. Let a glass of water be brought. Let the door be opened. Let the radio be switched on. Let the flowers not be plucked. Let this wire not be touched. Let the order be given. Let the police be informed of the accident.
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES EXPRESSING ADVICE
जब Imperative Sentence से advice (सलाह) का भाव व्यक्त होता है, तब हम Passive form को Let से शुरू नहीं करते हैं, बल्कि वाक्य को इस रूप में परिवर्तित करते हैं
Subject + should + be + V3. Active
Passive Love your country. Your country should be loved. Help the poor.
The poor should be helped. Help your neighbours. Your neighbours should be helped. Don’t insult the weak, The weak should not be insulted.
Note: कुछ Sentences ऐसे होते हैं जिनसे यह स्पष्ट नहीं होता है कि ये order हैं या advice. ऐसे sentences को Rule No. 11 या Rule No. 12 से बनाएँ।यदि Imperative Sentence के साथ Please / Kindly का प्रयोग हो, तो Passive Verb Form के लिए वाक्य को You are requested to से शुरू करें। Please/Kindly का लोप कर शेष भाग को You are requested to के बाद जोड़ दें। जैसे
Passive Kindly post the letter. You are requested to post the letter. Take your chair, please. You are requested to take your chair.
यदि Imperative Sentence Transitive verb से शुरू हो, तो Sentence को Passive Construction देने के लिए You are ordered/ You are advised का प्रयोग करें। जैसे
Passive Stand up.
You are ordered to stand up. Go there.
You are ordered to go there. Work hard.
You are advised to work hard.
अगर ActiveVerb के साथ preposition या adverb प्रयुक्त रहता है, तब अभीष्ट verb को Passive बनाते समय प्रयुक्त preposition/ adverb का लोप नहीं किया जाता है। जैसेActive
Passive He looks after me.
I am looked after by him. They will look after you well. You will be well looked after. All his friends laugh at him. He is laughed at by all his friends. We must listen to our elders. Our elders must be listened to. They objected to his proposal. His proposal was objected to. We must write to him.
He must be written to. The thief broke into the house. The house was broken into.
- कुछ Passive Verbs के साथ by का प्रयोग नहीं होता है। agent के पहले by के बदले अन्य उपयुक्त preposition का प्रयोग करना पड़ता है, जिसका चयन अभीष्ट verb पर निर्भर करता है। जैसेActive
Passive I know it.
It is known to me.
He satisfied me.
I was satisfied with him. The result surprised me.
I was surprised at the result. His behaviour shocked me. I was shocked at his behaviour. He pleased me.
I was pleased with him. The book has interested me I have been very much interested very much.
in this book.
VERBS WITH TW00BJECTS कुछ वाक्यों में Active Verb के बाद दो Objects आते हैं। जैसे -I gave him a book. यहाँ gave के बाद दो Objects आए हैं – him और book. इनमें से him Personal/Indirect Object है और book Direct Object है। ऐसे दो Objects वाले Verb को Passive में बदलते समय हम किसी भी Object को Subject बना सकते हैं। परंतु Personal Object/ Indirect Object को Subject बनाना अच्छा माना जाता है। लेकिन अगर हमें Direct Object पर ही विशेष जोर देना हो, तो Direct Object को ही Subject बनाकर Active verb को Passive में बदलना चाहिए। अन्य परिवर्तन सामान्य नियम के ही अनुसार होते हैं। जैसे
Passive 1. I gave him a book. (a) He was given a book by me.
(b) A book was given (to) him by me. 2. He told me a story. (a) I was told a story (by him.)
(b) A story was told me (by him). 3. I offered him a chair. (a) He was offered a chair by me.
(b) A chair was offered him by me. 4. The Principal has given (a) I have been given a prize by me a prize.
the Principal. (b) A prize has been given me by the
सिर्फ Transitive Verbs के ही Passive Voice होते हैं। अतः इन वाक्यों की क्रियाएँ Passive Voice में नहीं हैं – He is gone.
They are arrived. He is come.
Winter is come. परंतु इन वाक्यों की क्रियाएँ Passive Voice में हैं – The chair is broken.
He is beaten. इसलिए उन वाक्यों के Verbs को Passive Voice में नहीं बदला जा सकता है, जो Intransitive हैं। जैसे – I read.
I am going to school. He has gone to Patna.
They are good boys. She is laughing.
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