Narration: Direct and Indirect Speech in Hindi (English Grammar): Meaning, Definition, Types, Examples, Kinds, PDF, (Reporting, Reported, Verb of Reported), Change of Person, Change of Tense
Direct Speech: जब किसी वक्ता के कथन को उसी के शब्दों में इस किया जाता है, तब वह Direct Speech कहलाता है। Direct Speech में प्रायः किसी का कथन inverted commas के बीच में रहता है।
Indirect Speech: जब किसी वक्ता के कथन को उसी के शब्दों में न कहकर उसके आशय या सारांश को अपने शब्दों में व्यक्त किया जाता है, तब वह Indirect Speech कहलाता है। Indirect Speech को inverted commas के भीतर नहीं रखा जाता है।
- He said, “I am ill.
- Ram said, I am ready.”
- Mohan said, I saw her.”
- He said to me. Do you know?
- He said that he was ill.
- Ram said that he was ready.
- Mohan said that he had seen her.
- He asked me if I knew.
कुछ पारिभाषिक शब्दों की व्याख्या Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में परिवर्तित किया जा सकता है।
इसके कुछ नियम हैं, जिन्हें समझने के पहले कुछ पारिभाषिक शब्दों को समझ लें।
1.Reporting verb: Inverted Commas के बाहर एक वाक्य रहता है, जिसके Verb को Reporting Verb कहते हैं। He said, “I am ready.” यहाँ ‘said’ Reporting Verb है।
2.Reported Speech: Inverted commas के भीतर जो वाक्य रहता है, उसे Reported Speech कहते हैं। He said, I am ready.” यहाँ 1am ready Reported Speech है।
3.Verb of the Reported Speech: Inverted Commas के भीतर जो वाक्य रहता है, उसे Reported Speech कहते हैं और उसमें प्रयुक्त Verb को Verb of the Reported Speech कहते हैं। He said, “I am ready.” यहाँ ‘am Verb of the Reported Speech है।
Changing into Indirect Speech Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलने के लिए कुछ General Rules हैं और कुछ Special Rules. General Rules उन नियमों को कहते हैं जो प्रत्येक प्रकार के वाक्य के साथ लागू होते हैं, वहीं Special Rules विभिन्न प्रकार के वाक्यों के लिए भिन्न-भिन्न होते हैं। General Rules को हम तीन भागों में इस प्रकार बाँट सकते हैं
- Change of Person 2. Change of Tense 3. Change of other parts of Speech
- Change of Person Direct Speech Indirect Speech a am fag Reported Speech.
- First Person Reporting Verb – Subject – 31JATE 2. Second Person Et Reporting Verb > Object STATE 3. Third Person n No change. इसके लिए इस सूत्र को याद रखें
1 2 3
S ON 1 का अर्थ है First Person S का अर्थ है Subject 2 HT 3zef Second Person O FT Tf Object 3 का अर्थ है Third Person N का अर्थ है No change अर्थात् First Person Subject के अनुसार
Second Person Object के अनुसार Third Person No change
Note: 1. जब Reporting verb Present या Future Tense में रहता है, तब Indirect Speech में कहीं भी Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है। हम यहाँ Reporting Verb को Present/Future Tense में रखेंगे ताकि Tense परिवर्तन की समस्या उत्पन्न न हो और Change of Person की प्रक्रिया सही ढंग से स्पष्ट हो सके।
- जब Inverted Commas के भीतर Assertive Sentence रहता है, तब Indirect Speech में Inverted Commas के बदले that का प्रयोग होता है।
- जब Reporting Verb say/says/said रहे और उसके बाद object रहे तो आप यहाँ इसे Indirect Speech में tell/tells/told में बदल दें। अगर Object न रहे। तो Reporting Verb में परिवर्तन नहीं करें।
- Person बदलते समय Number तथा Case पर विशेष ध्यान दें, क्योंकि ये नहीं बदलते हैं। आपकी सुविधा के लिए Personal Pronouns के सभी forms को आगे तालिका में दिया जा रहा है, जिन्हें हमेशा ध्यान में रखें।
- इस Chapter में बहुत सारे solved examples दिए गए हैं। उन्हें आप अच्छी तरह पढ़े और समझें। जब आप उन्हें अच्छी तरह समझ जाएँगे, तब आपको exercises बनाने में कठिनाई नहीं होगी। इसलिए इस chapter में दिए गए सभी solved examples को कम-से-कम दो बार अवश्य पढ़े और लिखें। Object First Person He tells me that he is my friend. He says to me,Subject Object Second Person He tells me that I am his friend.Object First Person Second Person She tells me that she loves me. 4. I say to her, “I love you.”Subject Object First PersonSecond Person I tell her that I love her. 5. She says to me, “I am his sister.”
Object First Person Third Person She tells me that she is his sister. 6. Ram says to me, “I am your friend.”
Ram tells me that he is my friend. 7. Sita says to me, “I am your friend.”
Sita tells me that she is my friend. 8. Ram says to Sita, “I am your friend.”
Ram tells Sita that he is her friend.
Sita says to Ram, “I am your friend.”
- Sita tells Ram that she is his friend. 10. They say to me, “We help you.”They tell me that they help me. 11. I say to them, “I help you.”I tell them that I help them. 12. You always say to me, “I shall help you.”You always tell me that you will help me. 13. The boys say to the teacher, “We need your help.”The boys tell the teacher that they need his help. 14. We say to him, “We are your helpers.”
We tell him that we are his helpers. 15. The teacher says to the students, “I am ready to help you.”
The teacher tells the students that he is ready to help them. 16. He says to Sita, “I love you and your dog.”
He tells Sita that he loves her and her dog. 17. Geeta says to Ravi, “If you help me I shall help you.”
Geeta tells Ravi that if he helps her she will help him. 18. He says to her, “Yours is black but mine is white.”
He tells her that hers is black but his is white. 19. The boys say to the teacher, “We can’t do without your help.”
The boys tell the teacher that they can’t do without his help. 20. He says, “I should help myself.”
He says that he should help himself. 21. Ram will say. “I am ready to do my duty.”
Ram will say that he is ready to do his duty.
- He says, “I should help myself.”
- He says that he should help himself. 21. Ram will say, “I am ready to do my duty.”Ram will say that he is ready to do his duty. 22. Sita will say to me, “I am ready to help you.”Sita will tell me that she is ready to help me. 23. The boys say to me, “We must help you and your father.”The boys tell me that they must help me and my father. 24. I will say to her, “I love you and you love me.”I will tell her that I love her and she loves me. 25. He says to me, “I did not cheat you, so you should believe me.”
He tells me that he did not cheat me, so I should believe him.
- Change of Tense 1. जब Reporting Verb Present/Future Tense में रहता है, तब Indirect Speech में कहीं भी Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है। अभी तक दिए गए उदाहरणों से यह पूर्णतः स्पष्ट है।
- जब Reporting Verb Past Tense में रहता है, तब Inverted Commas के भीतर प्रयुक्त Tense में परिवर्तन होता है। यह परिवर्तन इस प्रकार होता है
- Direct Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect ContinueIndirect Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous–Simple Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect ContinuousPast Perfect – Past Perfect Continuous
no change of tense – no change of tense
may am/is/are have/has was/were had to + vi could/should/would/might
should/would could might was/were had had been had had to + v1 generally no change
- Solved Examples:
- He said to me. I am your friend.”
He told me that he was my friend. 2. She said to me. I am to help you.”
She told me that she was to help me. 3. Sita said to me. “I love you.”
Sita told me that she loved me. 4. My son said to me, I am doing my lesson.”
My son told me that he was doing his lesson. 5. Geeta said to Ram, “I have always helped you.”
Geeta told Ram that she had always helped him. 6. Ram said to Rita, “I have been waiting for you.”
Ram told Rita that he had been waiting for her. 7. My father said to me, “I wanted to give you a bicycle.”
My father told me that he had wanted to give me a bicycle. 8. He said to the boys. I was playing with you.”
He told the boys that he had been playing with them. 9. Radha said to Ram, “I had seen him.”
Radha told Ram that she had seen him. 10. He said, “I had been playing.”
He said that he had been playing. 11. He said to me, “I shall help you.”
He told me that he would help me. 12. He said to me, “I can help you.”
He told me that he could help me. 13. He said to me. “He may help me.”
He told me that he might help him. 14. He said, “I could kill the bird.”
He said that he could kill the bird. 15. He said, “I was absent.”
He said that he had been absent. 16. He said to her, “I was busy. so I did not help you.”
He told her that he had been busy. so he hadn’t helped her.
- Exception: Universal Truth यदि Inverted Commas के भीतर कोई ऐसा कथन हो जिससे चिरंतन सत्य या सिद्धांत (Universal Truth) का बोध हो, तो ReportingVerb के Past Tense में रहने पर भी Reported Speech के Tense में कोई फ़रवर्तन नहीं होगा। जैसे –
- He said, “The earth is round.”
- He said that the earth is round. 2. My father said to me, “Honesty is the best policy.”My father told me that honesty is the best policy. 3. He said, “Work is worship.”He said that work is worship. 4. The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and sets in theThe teacher said that the sun rises in the east and sets in thewest. 5. He remarked, “A bad carpenter quarrels with his tools.”
He remarked that a bad carpenter quarrels with his tools. 6. He says, “Two and two is four.**
He says that two and two is four.
- Change of Other Parts of Speech जब Reporting Verb Past Tense में रहता है, तब Reported Speech में जितने भी निकटता-सूचक शब्द रहते हैं, वे सब-के-सब Indirect Speech में दूरी-सूचक शब्दों में बदल जाते हैं। ऐसे आवश्यक परिवर्तन के लिए इस Chart को ध्यान में रखें –
- DirectIndirect thisthat thesethose herethere hence
that day yesterday
the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow
the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week/year, etc
the following week/year, etc last week/year, etc
the previous week/year, etc a year ago
a year before/the previous year
- Solved Examples:
- He said, “I am busy today.”
He said that he was busy that day. 2. She said, “I shall do it tomorrow.”
She said that she would do it the next day. 3. He said, “I don’t like this boy.”
He said that he did not like that boy. 4. He said, “I am now speaking to this boy.”
He said that he was then speaking to that boy. 5. They said, “We are starting the day after tomorrow.”
They said that they were starting in two days’ time. 6. He said, “She died a year ago.”
He said that she had died a year before.
- Note: चूंकि घटना past time से संबंधित रहती है, इसलिए निकटता-सूचक शब्दों को दूरी-सूचक शब्दों में बदलना पड़ता है। यदि Reported Speech में प्रयुक्त वस्तु/ परिस्थिति वक्ता के साथ अभी भी मौजूद हो, तो उस हालत में निकटता-सूचक शब्दों को दूरी-सूचक शब्दों में नहीं बदला जाएगा। जैसे – 1. He said, “This is my table.”अगर टेबुल Reporter के सामने बोलने के समय भी मौजूद हो, तो Indirect Speech में this को that में नहीं बदला जाएगा। अर्थात्He said that this was his table. 2. This morning Ram said to me, “I shall give you moneytoday.” This morning Ram told me that he would give me money today. यहाँ this morning से यह स्पष्ट है कि दिन नहीं बदला है। अतः today का that day नहीं होगा।
- ध्यान देने योग्य कुछ आवश्यक बातें 1. कभी-कभी Reporting Verb के बाद Object नहीं रहता है और Reported Speech ag Second Person – pronoun/adjective को बदलने की आवश्यकता पड़ती है। वैसी परिस्थिति में आप अपने मन से कोई भी उपयुक्त object को चुन लें और उसे Reporting verb के बाद दे दें।
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