What is Internet? How Does the Internet Work?

You must be using many Internet services throughout the day? Such as email, messaging, web browsing, online shopping, video streaming etc. But have you ever wondered what is this Internet ? And how does this work? Also, who would be operating and maintaining the Internet on such a large level? Does anyone own the internet? If yes then who? And why sometimes our internet service providers stop internet service in a particular area? Can the Internet of the whole world be shut down in the same way? To know the answer to all such questions, read this article completely.

29 अक्टूबर, 1969 को, ARPANET (एडवांस्ड रिसर्च प्रोजेक्ट्स एजेंसी) नामक एक संगठन ने यूटा विश्वविद्यालय, UCSB, UCLA, और स्टैनफोर्ड रिसर्च इंस्टीट्यूट में चार प्रमुख कंप्यूटरों को जोड़ने वाले इंटरनेट (जिसे ARPANET के रूप में भी जाना जाता है) का पहला पुनरावृत्ति शुरू किया।

जब कंप्यूटरों का यह नेटवर्क जुड़ा हुआ था, तो विश्वविद्यालय फाइलों तक पहुंचने और एक संगठन से दूसरे संगठन के साथ-साथ आंतरिक रूप से सूचना प्रसारित करने में सक्षम थे।
जैसे ही शोधकर्ताओं ने सिस्टम विकसित किया, उन्होंने एमआईटी, हार्वर्ड और कार्नेगी मेलॉन समेत अन्य विश्वविद्यालयों के कंप्यूटरों को जोड़ना जारी रखा। आखिरकार, ARPANET का नाम बदलकर “इंटरनेट” कर दिया गया।

इंटरनेट क्या है?

इससे पहले कि हम इंटरनेट को कवर करें, हमें परिभाषित करना चाहिए कि “नेटवर्क” क्या है। एक नेटवर्क जुड़े हुए कंप्यूटरों का एक समूह है जो एक दूसरे को डेटा भेजने में सक्षम होते हैं। एक कंप्यूटर नेटवर्क एक सामाजिक दायरे की तरह है, जो ऐसे लोगों का समूह है जो सभी एक दूसरे को जानते हैं, नियमित रूप से सूचनाओं का आदान-प्रदान करते हैं, और एक साथ गतिविधियों का समन्वय करते हैं।

चूंकि कंप्यूटर नेटवर्क के भीतर एक-दूसरे से जुड़ते हैं और ये सभी नेटवर्क भी एक-दूसरे से जुड़ते हैं, एक कंप्यूटर इंटरनेट की बदौलत दूर के नेटवर्क में दूसरे कंप्यूटर से बात कर सकता है। इससे दुनिया भर के कंप्यूटरों के बीच सूचनाओं का तेजी से आदान-प्रदान करना संभव हो जाता है।

Internet

Many people consider the Internet and the World Wide Web ( www ) to be the same thing. But it is not. Because the Internet is a very vast and global network. Whereas the World Wide Web is just a part of this network (Internet). That is, the Internet forms a huge network by connecting computers around the world . This makes it much easier to exchange information. Simply put, with the help of the Internet, we can get information from any computer in the world sitting at home. Just that computer should be connected to the Internet.

इंटरनेट अरबों कंप्यूटरों और अन्य इलेक्ट्रॉनिक उपकरणों का वैश्विक नेटवर्क है। इंटरनेट के साथ, लगभग किसी भी जानकारी तक पहुंच बनाना, दुनिया में किसी और के साथ संवाद करना और बहुत कुछ करना संभव है।

यह सब आप एक कंप्यूटर को इंटरनेट से कनेक्ट करके कर सकते हैं, जिसे ऑनलाइन जाना भी कहा जाता है । जब कोई कहता है कि कंप्यूटर ऑनलाइन है, तो यह कहने का एक और तरीका है कि यह इंटरनेट से जुड़ा है।

Today, with the help of the Internet, we can do many everyday tasks in a pinch sitting at home. For example , paying Electricity Bill , Mobile Recharging , Shopping , Funds Transfer etc. But more than that, we use the Internet for Chatting, Messaging, Browsing and Entertainment. That is, the Internet is a special part of our daily routine. In such a situation, we should know that what is this Internet after all? And how does it work? Also, what are its advantages and what are the disadvantages? And who has control over it? Let us find the answer to all these questions.

What is Internet?

Internet is made up of two words – Inter and Net. Which means, between networks. That is, exchanging data between two or more networks. In fact the Internet is a vast network of networks. Which connects millions of networks with each other. It is the largest computer network in the world. It is spread to every corner of the world through cables, telephone lines and satellites. In simple language, Internet is such a global network . Through which information can be exchanged at a faster speed around the world.

इंटरनेट कैसे काम करता है?

इस समय आप सोच रहे होंगे कि इंटरनेट कैसे काम करता है? सटीक उत्तर बहुत जटिल है और समझाने में थोड़ा समय लगेगा। इसके बजाय, आइए कुछ सबसे महत्वपूर्ण बातों पर ध्यान दें, जिन्हें आपको जानना चाहिए।

यह महसूस करना महत्वपूर्ण है कि इंटरनेट भौतिक केबलों का एक वैश्विक नेटवर्क है , जिसमें तांबे के टेलीफोन तार, टीवी केबल और फाइबर ऑप्टिक केबल शामिल हो सकते हैं। यहां तक ​​कि वाई-फाई और 3जी/4जी जैसे वायरलेस कनेक्शन भी इंटरनेट एक्सेस करने के लिए इन भौतिक केबलों पर निर्भर हैं।

जब आप किसी वेबसाइट पर जाते हैं, तो आपका कंप्यूटर सर्वर को इन तारों पर एक अनुरोध भेजता है । एक सर्वर वह जगह है जहां वेबसाइटें संग्रहीत की जाती हैं, और यह आपके कंप्यूटर की हार्ड ड्राइव की तरह काम करती है। अनुरोध आने के बाद, सर्वर वेबसाइट को पुनः प्राप्त करता है और सही डेटा आपके कंप्यूटर पर वापस भेजता है। आश्चर्यजनक बात यह है कि यह सब कुछ ही सेकंड में हो जाता है!

Today the Internet is available to everyone for free. Any person sitting in any corner of the world can use the Internet whenever he wants. But it was not so in the beginning. Initially the Internet was not available to the common people. It was used for the exchange of military information in the US Department of Security. Actually US military advisers wanted to establish such a network. Which is capable of exchanging information even in emergency situations like war. Later the Internet was born on the basis of this hypothesis.

History of the Internet

In September 1969, a networking project named ARPA (Advance Research Project Agency) was launched in the US Department of Defense . Which was known as ARPANET at that time . This network was used to exchange confidential information. This network connected many military advisers, scientists and researchers. Those who could exchange information at a fast speed through electronic mail (Email). That is why the popularity of this network increased rapidly.

As a result, by 1984, more than a thousand personal computers became part of this network. And after that in 1986, the National Science Foundation also included its network of 5 Super Computers in it. Due to which its name was changed to NSFnet . NSFnet operated till 1995. And in 1995 he distanced himself from this network. After that the companies and business firms providing the network took over this responsibility. Which included telephone companies, cable companies and satellite companies.

Internet start in India

This was the time when the Internet started in India. On 15 August 1995, VSNL (Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited) installed its first Internet Server . And thus the Internet service was started in four metropolitan cities of India (Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata). At that time VSNL was the only company which provided internet service. But later many more companies came. This led to the rapid expansion of Internet services. And limited only to the metros, the Internet reached many smaller cities, towns and villages.

These companies providing Internet service are called ISP i.e. Internet Service Provider . Currently BSNL, Jio, Vodafone-Idea, MTNL, Hathway, Tata Communication, Excitel, GTPL, You Broadband, Tikona Infinet and some other service providers are providing internet service in India.

Who discovered the Internet?

Now the question is, who discovered the Internet? Who invented the internet? So it cannot be attributed to any one person. Because the Internet was not discovered by any one person. Rather, it has taken the hard work of many people.

Actually the Internet is made up of many technologies. And many scientists and researchers have contributed in this. But when it comes to internet searchers, only two names come to the fore. of Mr. Vinton Cerf and Robert E. Kahn . He actually invented the TCP / IP protocol. Which is the primary protocol used on the Internet.

How does the Internet work?

Internet is the busiest highway for data communication. In this, every second, millions of TB (Terabyte) are exchanged. And most of the load of this data traffic is on the main communication lines. That is why these lines are called Internet Backbone . Generally, a computer transfers data with the help of servers and clients. If you don’t know what is Server and Client? So first know about them. with

Server : The computer that manages the data of a network. And provides storage to store the data, it is called server.

Client : The computer which wants to take data by accessing this storage is called client. And the client which can access the data of many servers. It  is called Host Computer .

working of internet

The data you transfer through the Internet. He travels in the form of small packets . When you transfer data between two or more networks. So the router does the job of handling the data . Now you will ask what is this router? So a router is actually a computer network device. Which works for switching between two or more networks. It can send data anywhere in the network. But before sending the data, it checks where the data has to go? And then decides in which direction to send the data?

But the question is, how does the router know which data has to go where? So for this there is an address with data. Which is called IP Address . This IP address includes the destination of the data, its address and serial information. As soon as it is read, the router knows where the data needs to go. Just then the Router sends the data to its destination by the most suitable route available with it. This data is divided into small packets. Which is handled by TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) .

The IP address is actually in numerical form. That is why it is as easy for the computer to read and remember it. It is very difficult for a human being. That is why DNS (Domain Name System) was established in 1984 . It converts the IP address into words. For example, converts 172.217.10.46 to  google.com  . Which is easy for humans to read and remember.

Advantages of Internet

With the advent of the Internet, there has been a revolution in the field of information. Where in the world you can know what is happening in one click. The distance is over. Today internet is being used in every field from banking to marketing and business to education. In such a situation, it is very important to have information about the benefits of internet . Because without it you cannot take full advantage of the Internet. That’s why come, know the benefits of internet

1. Email

You all know about Email (Electronic Mail). It is the oldest service on the Internet, which is used to send and receive messages at high speed. With the help of email, you can establish communication with a person sitting in any corner of the world. And send and get information to him. Email is a really useful time-saving service.

2. www

The World Wide Web (www) is a vast storehouse of information. Contains information from around the world. With its help you can get any information. The World Wide Web is actually a database, in which there are crores of websites. There are countless webpages on these websites, which are full of information. In this, there is a lot of information in the form of Texts, Images, Audio and Videos.

3. FTP

FTP ( File Transfer Protocol ) is another convenient and useful service of the Internet. With its help, you can transfer the files present in one computer to another computer through the Internet. Although nowadays many options have come to transfer files. But still, FTP is used to transfer large size files.

4. E-Commerce 

E-commerce means doing business through internet. That is, buying and selling goods and earning money. It is a digital medium of business. In this, the purchase and sale of goods and the transaction of money between the customer and the seller is completely online. Examples of e-commerce are Amazon, Flipkart, KFC, Zomato, Oyo Room etc.

5. Chat

Who doesn’t know about Chatting ? It is one of the most popular services on the Internet. With the help of this, a person sitting far away can be talked to. Also Photos, Videos, Voice Recordings and Documents can be sent to him. If you are an internet user then you must also use WhatsApp, Telegram, Snapchat etc. These are all chatting services only.

6. News

Today you can know the latest news of the country and abroad sitting at home. Even where in the world what is happening, we can know at that time. Also watch and listen live coverage of agriculture, business, sports, entertainment, weather, science, technology and even every sector. And this miracle has been possible only with the help of Internet.

7. Entertainment

Internet is also a good means of entertainment. With its help, you can entertain yourself by watching tons of TV shows, movies, web-series and live programs. Also, you can watch your favorite programs and videos through Video Streaming Apps such as Youtube , Netflix etc. Not only this, you can also play online games with your friends with the help of internet. Overall, the Internet is a great source of entertainment.

8. Online Education

With the help of internet, you can join online classes sitting at home. And you can save from loss of your studies. Even many big educational institutions conduct examinations online. such as Delhi University. Apart from this, many entrance exams and competitive exams are also conducted online. And all this is possible only with the help of Internet.

9. Online Payment

Nowadays most of the merchants and shopkeepers have started accepting online payment . Because there is neither the hassle of cash nor open money in it. That’s why most merchants support Digital Payment. This is the reason that nowadays you get to see QR Code or POS Machine in every second-third shop.

Online Payment is actually one of the most useful services of the Internet. With its help, you can make online payments in restaurants, petrol pumps and shopping malls etc. And you can travel anywhere without carrying cash.

10. Social Media

Today there will be hardly any Internet user who does not use social media. Not only can you make new friends through social media. Rather you can chat with them. Can share photos and videos. And you can share your thoughts. All social media services like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Linkedin, Tumblr, Reddit, Pinterest and Telegram all work with the help of the Internet.

11. Video Calling

You can make video calls with the help of internet . And looking at the face of the other person, you can talk to him. It provides a great calling experience. Also, it is more reliable than Voice Call.

12. Cloud Service

Cloud Service is a useful service of the Internet. With its help, you can store your data anywhere. And if needed, you can access from anywhere. Its advantage is that you do not have to carry a hard disk or pendrive with you all the time. Secondly, the data is always secure.

13. Advertising

Internet is the best place for advertising. Because there is no shortage of users here. All types of users are found. In such a situation, millions of users can be reached in a few seconds by advertising through the Internet.

That is why nowadays most companies do online advertising. You see a lot of ads on different Apps, Blogs and Websites throughout the day. They all work only with the help of Internet.

14. Utility Services

With the help of the Internet, you can do many everyday tasks sitting at home. Such as paying electricity-water bill, mobile recharge, shopping, ticket booking, funds transfer etc. This saves you a lot of time.

Disadvantages of Internet

Every coin has two sides. Similarly, the Internet also has two sides. One good and one bad. That is, as many advantages of the Internet as there are disadvantages. Let’s take a look at the disadvantages of the Internet…

1. Hacking

This is the biggest disadvantage of the Internet. Because with the help of this your phone or computer can be hacked anytime . And all your data can be stolen. Not only this, the stolen data can be used for wrong purposes. Can even be used in illegal and criminal activities.

2. Wrong Information

Anyone on the Internet can create their own website and post anything on it. Can even post false information. In such a situation, a user should always act at his discretion. Because due to these wrong information many times the loss of the person also happens.

3. Privacy Risk

There is always a risk of privacy on the Internet . Who are you? Where have you come from? What are you searching? What are you downloading? Which website are you visiting? What are you watching? What are you reading? All this is recorded. Your every online activity can be tracked. This means that none of your information remains confidential. And this is the biggest drawback of the Internet.

4. Rumours

Rumors spread very fast through the Internet. A false rumor reaches crores of people within minutes. But even so far it is fine. The real problem starts when people start reacting to these false rumors as truth. Because in such a situation these rumors prove to be very harmful. Even sometimes people lose their lives.

5. Virus

You all know about Computer Virus . It travels very fast with the help of internet. And reaches from one computer to another computer. Virus can steal data from your phone or computer. And can currupt all the files present in your device.

6. Cyber Crimes

Crimes done with the help of Internet are called Cyber ​​Crimes . There are all kinds of illegal activities involved in this. Such as Online Fraud, Card Skimming , SIM Card Cloning , Credit/Debit Card Cloning, ATM Fraud, Banking Fraud, Smartphone Hacking , Virus Attack, Data Breaching etc-etc. The help of Internet is taken in all these works. And this is a huge disadvantage of the Internet.

7. Addiction

Internet addiction is a very bad thing. If you get addicted to it, then most of your time is wasted in it. Also, it has a bad effect on health as well. Games like PUBG are the best examples of this.

8. Defamation

The honor and respect of any human being can be wired through the Internet. Negative publicity against any person can tarnish his image. Many times, pornographic MMS of girls are secretly uploaded on the Internet. Even the cases of many popular celebrities and celebrities getting MMS Leak also come to the fore. In such a situation, the Internet is a very harmful thing.

10. Loss of Time

Just as the Internet saves our time, it also wastes our time. You unlock the phone to check a notification . But use the phone for hours. Because from the front your favorite photos, videos etc. keep coming. And you keep watching. You don’t even know the time in this cycle.

Who is the owner of Internet?

Actually the Internet is a huge network of millions of computers . In which computers all over the world are interconnected. That is, it is not a network of any one person or organization but a network of all. And it’s completely free. Now you will ask if the Internet is really free! Then why are we charged internet money?

The fact is that the Internet is free. But to get it to your phone or computer , a lot of resources are needed. There are many companies that use telephone lines, cables, towers and other equipment to transmit network signals to your phone or computer. Internet users are charged a certain fee for the cost and maintenance of these resources. And for this, users are given the freedom to choose different data plans.

Government control over the Internet?

You must have seen that many times internet service is stopped in a particular area on government orders. For example, in Jammu and Kashmir, the Internet service remained closed for several days. In such a situation, the question arises whether the government has control over the Internet? So the answer is – no. Because the government of any country or state cannot shut down the internet of the whole world. But yes, in special circumstances, you can stop internet service in any area of ​​your state or country.

On the other hand, if we talk about Internet Service Providers, then they can also stop only their own service. They do not even have the power to stop the internet service of the whole world. So is there such a supreme power, which can shut down the internet of the whole world at once? The answer is – no. Because the Internet is a decentralized network . It is not controlled by any one person, organization or government. That’s why no one can shut down the internet of the whole world at once.

Internet : Summary

What is the importance of internet in our life? This is understandable to us when sometimes the internet in our area is turned off. Then we realize how incomplete our life is without internet. And to what extent have we become dependent on the Internet. Without internet, we feel as if our life has come to a standstill. This is to say that the Internet has become an integral part of our life. And it is quite difficult to live without it.

I hope that what is internet to you through this article ? How does this work? What are the advantages and disadvantages of internet? And who is the real owner of the internet ? Like all the questions would have been answered.