Adverbs in Hindi: Definition, Types, Examples, Kinds (Time, Frequency, Manner, Place, Degree, Interrogative, Negation and Affirmation, Reason, Relative)

Adverbs in Hindi: Definition, Types, Examples, Kinds (Time, Frequency, Manner, Place, Degree, Interrogative, Negation and Affirmation, Reason, Relative)

इन वाक्यों को देखेंThe child runs slowly.

He is too old. She writes beautifully.

Ram is very kind. They fought bravely.

She walked very slowly. इन वाक्यों में आए शब्द slowly, beautifully, bravely, too और very पर विचार करें। ये क्रमशः runs (verb), writes (verb), fought (verb), old (adj.) तथा kind (adj.) & slowly (adv.) की विशेषता बता रहे हैं। ये अभीष्ट Verb/Adjective/Adverb के अर्थ को और अधिक स्पष्ट कर रहे हैं। ऐसे शब्दों को हम Grammar की भाषा में Adverbs कहते हैं।

Definition: Adverb वह शब्द है , जो किसी Verb, Adjective या दुसरे Adverb की विशेषता बताता है

* An adverb qualifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. * An adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Examples: slowly, carefully, beautifully, clearly, quickly, loudly, sadly, hardly, very, too. yesterday, today, soon, here, there, etc.

KINDS OF THE ADVERB

Adverb के निम्नलिखित मुख्य भेद हैं

1. Adverbs of Time (कालवाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

2. Adverbs of Frequency (आवृत्तिवाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

3. Adverbs of Manner (रीतिवाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

4. Adverbs of Place (स्थानवाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

5. Adverbs of Degree (परिमाणवाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

6. Interrogative Adverbs (प्रश्नवाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

7. Adverbs of Negation and Affirmation (नकारात्मक एवं स्वीकारात्मक क्रियाविशेषण)

8. Adverbs of Reason (कारणवाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

9. Relative Adverbs (संबंधवाचक क्रियाविशेषण)

Adverbs of Time

  1. Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of Time से क्रिया के संपादन के समय का बोध होता है।

Adverbs of time tell the time of an action. Examples: today, yesterday, tomorrow, now, then, Soon, lats, lately, just, ago, before, immediately, etc.

Note : Verb के साथ when (कब) लगाकर प्रश्न करने पर जो शब्द उत्तर के रूप में आता है, वह Adverb of Time कहलाता है। जैसे –

(a) He came yesterday.

| Came when (कब आया) ? -yesterday (b) He will come soon.

Will come when (कब आएगा) ? – soon स्पष्टतः yesterday और soon Adverbs of Time हैं।

Adverbs of Frequency

  1. Adverbs of Frequency : Adverbs of Frequency से बोध होता है कि किसी कार्य का संपादन ‘कितनी बार हुआ, होता है या होगा।

* Adverbs of frequency tell how often or how frequently an action is done.

Examples : never, always, once, twice, daily, regularly, again, | seldom (बिरले ही), occasionally (यदा-कदा, समय-समय पर), etc.

Note : क्रिया के साथ how often (कितनी बार) लगाकर प्रश्न करने पर जो शब्द उत्तर के रूप में आता है, वह Adverb of Frequency कहलाता है। जैसे – (a) He came here twice.

Came how often (कितनी बार आया) ? – twice (b) I have always helped you.

Helped how often (कितनी बार मदद की है) ? – always स्पष्टतः twice और always Adverbs of Frequency हैं।

Adverbs of Manner

  1. Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of Manner से यह बोध होता है कि क्रिया का संपादन किस ढंग से या कैसे होता है।

* Adverbs of manner tell how or in what manner an action is done. ..Examples : slowly, carefully, beautifully, sadly, bravely, loudly,

quickly, fast (तेजी से), hard (कड़ाई से), well (अच्छी तरह से), etc.

Note : Verb के साथ how (कैसे) लगाकर प्रश्न करने पर जो शब्द उत्तर के रूप में आता है, वह Adverb of Manner कहलाता है। जैसे — (a) She writes beautifully.

writes how (कैसे लिखती है) ? -beautifully (b) He runs fast.

Runs how (कैसे दौड़ता है) ? — fast स्पष्टतः beautifully और fast Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of Place

  1. Adverbs of Place: Adverbs of Place से कार्य के संपादन के स्थान का बोध होता है।

* Adverbs of place tell where or at what place an action is done. Examples: here, there, everywhere, up, down, outside, within, near, below, away, etc,

Note: Verb के साथ where (कहाँ) लगाकर प्रश्न करने पर जो शब्द उत्तर के रूप में आता है, वह Adverb of Place कहलाता है। जैसे – (a) Go there.

Go where (कहाँ जाओ) ? ~ there (b) I shall wait for you outside.

Wait where (कहाँ इंतजार करूँगा) ? ~ outside स्पष्टतः there और outside Adverbs of Place हैं।

Adverbs of Degree

  1. Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of Degree से यह बोध होता है। कि किसी Action, Adjective या Adverb की तीव्रता किस हद तक या कितनी है।

* Adverbs of degree indicate the degree of intensity of an action or an adjective or an adverb. Exaniples: very, much, enough, too, quite (बिलकुल, नितांत), hardly (मुश्किल से), exactly (ठीक ठीक), nearly (लगभग, करीब करीब), almost (लगभग, करीब-करीब), etc.

Note: Verb के साथ how much/to what degree/to what extent (कितना कितनी) लगाकर प्रश्न करने पर जो शब्द उत्तर के रूप में आता है, वह Adverb of Degree कहलाता है। जैसे – (a) Sita is very happy. Happy how much (कितना खुश) ? ~ very (बहुत)

। (b) She hardly knows me. Knows to what extent (कितना जानती है)? ~ hardly

(मुश्किल से, नहीं के बराबर) स्पष्टतः very और hardly Adverbs of Degree हैं।

Interrogative Adverbs

  1. Interrogative Adverbs: when, where; how, why, how long, how much, how often,

how many, इत्यादि का प्रयोग जव प्रश्न करने में किया जाता है, तब इन्हें Interrogative Adverbs कहते हैं।

* When, where, how, why, how long, how much, how often, how many, etc are called interrogative adverbs when they are used in asking questions.

इन वाक्यों में Interrogative Adverbs के प्रयोग को देखें – Where is Mukul?

How did he fight? When will you go?

How often do you drink?

Adverbs of Negation and Affirmation

  1. Adverbs of Negation and Affirmation: किसी प्रश्न के स्वीकारात्मक जवाब के लिए yes, surely, certainly (निश्चित रूप से) इत्यादि का प्रयोग करते हैं। इन्हें Adverbs of Affirmation कहते हैं। पुनः, नकारात्मक जवाब के लिए no, not, never इत्यादि का प्रयोग करते हैं। इन्हें Adverbs of Negation कहते हैं।

Adverbs of Reason

  1. Adverbs of Reason: Adverbs of reason tell the reason of the action.

Examples: therefore, hence, thus, So, etc. He, therefore, left school. Thus, she became angry.

Relative Adverbs

  1. Relative Adverbs: Relative Adverbs अपने बाद आनेवाले Verbs को modify करते हैं और साथ ही दो वाक्यों को एक साथ जोड़ते हैं।

* Relative adverbs modify the verbs following them and at the same time join two sentences together.

Note: Relative adverbs और Interrogative Adverbs दोनों के एक ही रूप हैं, लेकिन जहाँ Interrogative Adverbs का प्रयोग प्रश्न किए जाने में किया जाता है, वहीं Relative Adverbs का प्रयोग दो वाक्यों को जोड़ने में किया जाता है।

Examples of Relative Adverbs: where, how, when, why, how long, how much, how many, etc. This is the house where he lived. Let me know when you will come. I don’t know the reason why he left the place. Do you know how he will act.

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